Course: Statistical Quality Control


Statistical Quality control using Minitab

by Prof. Marien Graham*, from Department of Science, Mathematics and Technology Education, Faculty of Education, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa. 


(Note: The participants of the course should install Minitab relatively close to the date of their first course session, as the free trial is only valid for 30 days)


The maximum duration of the course is 6 hours (about 3 hours a day, in the mornings of October 13 and 14) starting at 08:00 am (Lisbon, Portugal time).



Topic 1: How SPC works

Key concepts: chance causes, assignable causes, in-control, out-of-control, rational subgroups, control charts, variables data, attribute data, three-sigma control limits, average run-length, false alarm, patterns on control charts, sensitizing rules, Phase I, Phase II

Topic 2: Variables control charts

Key concepts: control charts for Xbar and R, control charts for Xbar and S, control charts for individual measurements, moving-range control charts, development and use of these charts\

Topic 3: Attributes control charts

Key concepts: control chart for fraction nonconforming (p chart), control chart for number nonconforming (np chart), control chart for nonconformities (c chart), control chart for average number of nonconformities per unit (u chart).

Topic 4: Time-weighted control charts

Keywords: cumulative sum (CUSUM), exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA)






* Short biography:

Prof. Marien A. Graham is a specialist in the areas of assessment and quality assurance, nonparametric statistics and statistical quality control. She is an Associate Professor in the Department of Science, Mathematics and Technology Education at the University of Pretoria. She has made contributions to many disciplines, including education, healthcare, social issues, and agroforestry. She is a Y1-rated researcher with the National Research Foundation (NRF), South Africa, as well as the co-author of Nonparametric Statistical Process Control, published by John Wiley & Sons (2019). She furthermore serves on the editorial advisory board of Scientific Studies and Research, Series Mathematics and Informatics, and has published in several accredited international peer-reviewed journals. She regularly presents her research at national and international conferences.




Chakraborti, S, Human, SW, Graham, MA. (2009). Phase I statistical process control charts: An overview and some results. Quality Engineering, 21(1), 52-62. Open Access. Available at:

Klein,M.(2000).TwoalternativestotheShewhart Xbar controlchart.JournalofQualityTechnology,32(4),427-431. Open Access. Available at:

Nelson,L. S.(2003). When shouldthe limits onaShewhartcontrol chart beotherthanacenter lineof±3-sigma? JournalofQualityTechnology,35(4),424-425. Open Access. Available at:

Stoumbos, Z. G., Reynolds Jr, M. R., Ryan, T. P., & Woodall, W. H. (2000). The state of statistical process control as we proceed into the 21st century. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 95(451), 992-998. Open Access. Available at: 

Wolfe, H. A., Taylor, A., & Subramanyam, R. (2021). Statistics in quality improvement: Measurement and statistical process control. Pediatric Anesthesia, 31(5), 539-547. Open Access. Available at: 

Woodall, W. H. (2000). Controversies and contradictions in statistical process control. Journal of quality technology, 32(4), 341-350. Open Access. Available at: 



da Silva, G. J., Borges, A. C., Moreira, M. C., & Rosa, A. P. (2022). Statistical process control in assessing water quality in the Doce river basin after the collapse of the Fundão dam (Mariana, Brazil). Journal of Environmental Management, 317, Article 115402. Open Access. Available at: 

Gessa, A., Marin, E., & Sancha, P. (2022). A practical application of statistical process control to evaluate the performance rate of academic programmes: Implications and suggestions. Quality Assurance in Education. Advanced online publication. Open Access. Available at: 

Li, S., Wei, X., Song, J., Zhang, C., Zhang, Y., & Sun, Y. (2021). Evaluation of Statistical Process Control Techniques in Monitoring Weekly Body Condition Scores as an Early Warning System for Predicting Subclinical Ketosis in Dry Cows. Animals, 11(11), Article 3224. Open Access. Available at: 

Reynolds, S. S., Lozano, H., Fleurant, M., & Bhandari, K. (2022). Using statistical process control charts to measure changes from a nurse-driven protocol to remove urinary catheters. American Journal of Infection Control. Advanced online publication. Open Access. Available at: 

Rique Junior, J. F., Peruchi, R. S., Rotella Junior, P., & Dutra Pereira, R. B. (2021). Statistical process control of the vertical form, fill and seal packaging machine in food industry. Journal of Food Process Engineering, 44(2), Article e13614. Open Access. Available at: